View INTRODUCTION TO FOREX blogger.com from FINC MISC at Kirinyaga University College (JKUAT). INTRODUCTION TO FOREX TRADING SYLLABUS Part 1: Introduction Download PDF - blogger.com [6nq9g15ee2lw]. This is a non-profit website to share the knowledge. To maintain this website, we need your help The purpose of this ebook is to introduce the forex market to you. As with many markets there are many derivative of the central market such as futures, options and forwards. In this book 3/3/ · Download An Introduction to Forex Trading PDF Book by Matthew Driver for free using the direct download link from pdf reader ... read more
Trading activity occurs worldwide 24 hours a day, corresponding to the opening and closing of inancial centers around the world; and so at any time, ive days a week and in any location around the globe there are Forex buyers and sellers, making the Forex market the most active and liquid market in the world.
Traditionally, Forex was traded in large volumes by only the banking sectors for their own commercial and investment purposes. But since , when the exchange rates were allowed to be loated freely, trading volume has increased dramatically.
Today, importers and exporters, international portfolio managers, multinational corporations, speculators, day traders, long-term holders and hedge funds all use the FOREX market to speculate, pay for goods and services, transact in inancial assets or to reduce the risk of currency movements by hedging their exposure in other markets. This exchange system was called the barter system. The irst coins to be used as a medium of exchange were made from gold and sil- ver.
Later on, during the middle ages, people began to use paper money to exchange value as an I. however, the foreign exchange industry itself is the newest of the inancial markets. during the last century, the foreign exchange market has undergone some dramatic transformations.
Prior to WWI, central banks supported their currencies through convertibility to gold. Paper money could be converted into gold on request to the bank. Since it was not likely that all holders of paper money would request gold at the same time, banks only needed to keep a determined amount of gold on hand in order to handle normal exchange requests gold reserves. And so, the amount of money outstanding was increased relative to the amount of actual gold the bank has on hand.
In , foreign exchange controls were introduced in a bid to control the forces of supply and demand, with the intention of structuring the world economic system in a way that would stabilize the volatile foreign exchange markets. And so in July , towards the end of WWII, the Allied countries U. The Bretton Woods conference determined a system for pegging currencies and created the International Monetary Fund.
During the s, the volatility between different country economies became more extreme, making it dificult for some to maintain the pegging system. The Bretton Woods control system collapsed in , when President Nixon suspended 4 IntroductIon to the BasIcs of forex www.
The dollar had lost its attraction as the sole international currency due to the impact of growing trade deicits and government budget deicits.
The European Joint Float was established by West Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg and in , the free-loating system was oficially mandated. The Birth of the Euro The quest continued in Europe for currency stability with the signing of The Maastricht treaty. This was to not only ix exchange rates but also actually replace many of them with the Euro in Floating Exchanges Systems Under a loating exchange system, currencies are not valued in terms of gold - they are valued in terms of other currencies.
In the early 20th century, two world wars brought about social upheavals, rapid inlation, and the destruction of the setting which made the gold standard operable. Between the wars, many countries elected to temporarily abandon the gold standard and opt for loating exchange systems until their economies returned to the point at which if a currency drifted too far outside its band and could not be contained by central bank intervention, the country was allowed to adjust its peg by setting a new exchange rate.
With the instability brought about by the Vietnam War, central banks inally began to convert their dollars to gold. In the Bretton Woods System of adjustable pegs was oficially abandoned, and the subsequent Jamaica Agreement basically allowed the presence of any exchange system a country chose to use.
What is traded on the Foreign Exchange? forex trading is the simultaneous buying of one currency and the selling of another or the buying and selling of money from one country against the money from another country. when you are buying a currency, think of it as if you are buying a share in a particular country. for example, when you buy us dollar, you are in effect buying a share in the us economy, as the price of the currency is a direct relection of what the market thinks about the current and future health of the us economy.
currency prices are determined by a number of factors. In some cases, governments may try to control the price of their currency by buying extensively in order to raise the price or looding the market in order to lower the price.
Nonetheless, it is impossible for one force to control the market for any length of time due to the gigantic volume of the forex market, market forces will prevail in the long run, making currency the most open and fair investment opportunities available.
Unlike other inancial markets, the FX spot market has neither a physical location nor a central exchange. otc implies that you have to trade with a speciic bank or broker when you buy and sell a currency 6 IntroductIon to the BasIcs of forex www. for example: aud australian dollars , JPY Japanese yen , chf swiss francs and cad canadian dollars When trading currencies, the trade is always done in pairs and so when you buy one currency, another currency is simultaneously being sold.
The currency pair is used to represent how much Quote currency is required to exchange for the base currency. The Quote currency is the second currency quoted in a currency pair in forex. In a direct quote, the quote currency is the foreign currency. as such the Base currency is always equal to 1 monetary unit of exchange. The dominant base currencies are, in order of frequency, the euR, GBP, and usd. When a currency is quoted against the us dollar it is called a direct rate.
any currency pair that does not trade against the us dollar is referred to as a cross rate. so what takes place once a trade is taking place? If the Pound rises relative to the dollar, you sell the position you Sell British Pound and have made a proit. Keep in mind that there are no standard cross-currency Quotes. Some have the base currency on the top while others have it on the bottom. So how can you tell which is which? You need to know at least one pair of currencies and which one of the pair is the more valuable.
In the Forex world, currencies are traded in fractions of a Cent, or euro, and so on. Nearly all currency pairs consist of ive signiicant digits and most pairs have the decimal point immediately after the irst digit, with four decimal points to follow.
In this example, a single pip equals the smallest change in the fourth decimal place - that is, 0. as mentioned earlier, the quote currency is translated into a certain num- ber of units of the base currency. When the price of the quoted currency goes up, it indicates that the base currency is becoming stronger and so one unit of the base currency will buy more of the quote currency. on the other hand, if the price of the quote currency falls, the base currency is becoming weaker.
the Bid is the price at which the market maker is ready to buy a given currency pair and so at this price the trader seller can sell the base currency to the market maker, The Bid is shown on the left side of the quotation. on the other hand, the ask is the price at which the market maker is ready to sell a given currency pair and so at this price the trader buyer can buy the base currency from the market maker, The ask is shown on the right side of the quotation.
The ask price is also called the offer price. Liquidity the forex market is the most liquid markets in the world. due to its liquidity, the Forex market is a more favorable market to speculators to invest in. This liquidity factor also means that orders are illed relatively quickly, allowing for orders to be executed at the order price. Furthermore, during the last years the Forex market offers extremely narrow spreads.
Most traders focus on trading the highly liquid Majors where most of trading volume occurs. This means that traders are able to react immediately to news of political, economic changes throughout the world.
In addition, the fact that the market operates 24 hours a day offers opportunities to make proits and cut- ting losses any time of the day and most importantly, it eliminates the problem of the gap whenever a new trading day take place over the non 24 hours mar- kets.
Because the main trading centers - London, new york, sydney, tokyo and Frankfurt - are located over ive different regions and have different time zones, a trader has the opportunity to trade over ive trading session which are overlapping. The window of trading opportunity lies between 5pm eST-east- ern Standard Time Sunday to 4.
In the forex market, with just a small margin, a trader is able to trade a much larger position than he would when trading on the stock market. This enhanced leveraging factor allows the trader to magnify his proits when the opportunity arises. You can lose money equally as fast as you make it. Take a disciplined approach to your trading. The difference between the Stock market and Forex is that margin deposit requirement is much higher for the Stock market than for the Forex market.
as such, the dollar value of margin trade goes further in the Forex market. No one can corner the market the forex market is such an enormous global market with so many players that no single trader, or banks has the ability to corner the market and ma- nipulate it to its own advantage.
even central banks have dificulties in mak- ing any profound inluences for any extended period of time. This is unlike in the stock market - where we often hear of speculators depressing the shares of a company by short selling. Small Account Minimums the forex market is much easier to participate in than other markets be- cause of the minimal requirements to open a Forex trading account.
To open a forex trading account, you are required to make only a small minimum de- posit. this makes forex trading accessible to anybody who wishes to trade in the over currencies. However, do note that not all Forex brokers offer mini accounts, though the majority do. The dealing spread is the difference between the bid and the ask quote. at present, under normal market conditions the dealing spread over the Major currency pairs should be no more than 3 pips.
New electronic Communication Networks eCNs systems are now offered by Forex brokers. as a rule of thumb they offer a much improved spread, but at the same time the brokers charge a commission per lot for using the eCN as your executing system. Find out from your broker about costs associated with executing through an eCN based execution platform, as they should offer an improved overall cost Spread plus commissions.
Chances are that at any given time, there is a rate movement in at least one of the Major currency pairs based simply on the sheer volume of trading and the number of global news events providing a vehicle to volatility, while offering endless opportunities to the trader.
Short Selling Without Any Restrictions In the stock market there are several regulatory restrictions imposed on selling short making the short selling hard to small trader — or even illegal in some of the stocks and markets.
In Forex trading there is nothing of the sort, since it is just as easy to take a short position as it is to take a long position. Disadvantages of Forex Trading 1.
When trading the most commonly used currency pairs the spread is often at its lowest. The total value of the currency pair needs to surpass the spread in order for the forex trade to become profitable. In order for forex brokers to increase the number of trades available to its customers, they need to provide capital in the way of leverage.
Before you can trade using leverage, you must sign up to a forex broker and open a margin account. Contingent on the broker and the size of the position, leverage is usually capped at if you are a retail client non-professional trader. Some offshore forex brokers will offer much more than this if you are seeking higher limits. It is because of the aforementioned example that you should exercise caution when using leverage. Should the worst possible scenario happen and your account falls below 0, you should contact your forex broker and ask for its policy on negative balance protection.
The good news is that all forex brokers which are regulated by ESMA the European Securities and Markets Authority will be able to provide you with this extra level of protection, ensuring that you never become in debt with your broker. Margins are a good way for traders to build up their exposure. Put simply, in order for a trader to maintain position and place a trade, the trader needs to put forward a specific amount of money first — this is the margin.
Rather than being a transaction cost, the margin can be compared to a security deposit. This will be held by the broker during an open forex trade. It is commonplace for forex brokers to give their customers access to leverage see above.
In order for you to lower your risk of exposure and offset your balance, you might consider hedging. This is a procedure which involves traders selling and buying financial instruments. When there are movements in currencies, a hedging strategy can reduce the risk of disadvantageous price shifts. The protection of this technique is often a short term solution.
Traders often turn to hedge in a panic as a result of the financial media reporting volatility in currency markets. This is usually down to huge events like geopolitical turmoil conflict in the middle east , global health crisis COVID and of course the great financial crisis of To counteract negative price movements, market players will tactically take advantage of attainable financial instruments in the market.
This is hedging against risk in its truest form. Hedging will give you some flexibility when it comes to enhancing your forex trading experience, but there are still no guarantees that you will be totally protected from any losses or risks.
While it can take some time to get your head around heading in the forex markets, the overarching concept is that it presents both outcomes.
That is to say, irrespective of which way the markets move, you will remain at the break-even point less some trading commissions. More specifically, the spot trade is a spot transaction, with reference to the sale or the purchase of a currency.
Essentially, spot forex is to both sell and buy foreign currencies. A good example of this is if you were to purchase a certain amount of South African rands ZAR , and exchange that for US dollars USD. If the value of the ZAR increases, you are able to exchange your USD back to ZAR, meaning you get more money back in comparison to the amount you originally paid. CFD is basically a contract which portrays the price movement of financial instruments. So, without having to own the asset, you can still make the most of price movements, whilst also avoiding the need to sell or buy vast amounts of currency.
CFDs are also accessible in bonds, commodities , cryptocurrencies, stocks, indices and of course — forex. With a CFD you are able to trade in price movements, cutting out the need to buy them at all. This section of our forex trading PDF is all about forex charts. When it comes to a MetaTrader platform, traders can use bar charts, line charts and candlestick charts. You can usually toggle between the different charts, depending on your preferences, fairly easily.
The first record of the now-famous candlestick chart was used in Japan during the s and proved invaluable for rice traders. These days, this price chart is without a doubt one the most popular amongst traders all over the world. Much like the OHLC bar chart see below , candlestick charts provide low, high, open and close values for a predetermined time frame.
Live forex traders love this chart due to its visual appearance and the range of price action patterns utilised. This allows you to gain a better understanding of how live trading works before you take any big financial risks in the market.
As the title suggests, this one is a bar chart, and each time frame a trader is looking at will be displayed as a bar. In other words, if you are viewing a daily chart you will see that every bar equates to a full trading day. With this price chart, traders are able to establish who is controlling the market, whether it be sellers or buyers.
OHLC analysis was the starting block for the creation of the ever-popular candlestick charts please further down. It is a great tool for looking at the bigger picture when it comes to trends.
The line chart arranges the close prices at the end of that time frame; so in this case, at the end of the day, the line will connect the closing price of that day. In this section of our forex trading PDF, we are going to talk about the different ways in which you can sell and buy a forex position as well as things to look out for.
When it comes to forex trading you can trade both short and long, but always make sure you have a good understanding of forex trading before embarking on trades. After all, forex trading can be a bit complex to begin with, especially when mixing long and short trades.
In a nutshell, going long is usually a term used for buying. So, when traders expect the price of an asset to rise, they will go long.
When forex traders expect the price of an asset to fall, they will go short. This means benefiting from buying at a lesser value. To achieve this, you simply need to place a sell order. The current exchange rate of a forex pair is always based on market forces. This will change on a second-by-second basis. As we noted earlier, you also need to take the spread into account, so there will always be a slight variation in pricing.
For instance, if you exchange 1 USD for 17 ZAR, the sale and purchase price offered by your forex broker will be either side of that figure.
The currency pairs with the most notable supply and demand attached to them will be considered the most liquid in the forex market. The supply and demand aspect is thanks to the investment of importers, exporters, banks and traders — to name a few. The most liquid currency pairs are therefore the ones in high demand. When you feel you are ready to take the plunge and begin live trading, you need to select a forex trading system. There is a vast amount of trading strategies for you to pick from.
This is because investors, speculators, corporations and banks have been trading for decades. In this part of the forex trading PDF, we are going to explain a few of the strategies available to you. If you want to buy and sell currency pairs from the comfort of your home or even via your mobile device , you will need to use a trading platform. Otherwise referred to as a forex broker, there are literally hundreds of trading platforms active in the online space.
This makes it extremely difficult to know which broker to sign up with. In the below sections of our forex trading PDF, we explain some of the considerations that you need to make. You should also look out for analysis tools available to you. In some cases, this might be embedded, while some offer tools such as technical analysis and fundamental analysis.
This is because it will save you a lot of leg work having to move between different sites and sources of information.
Some of the fastest and easiest trading platforms are MetaTrader 5 MT5 and MetaTrader 4 MT4. Crucially, both MT4 and MT5 are fast and receptive trading platforms, both providing live market data and access to sophisticated charts.
It is essential before you begin trading seriously that you fully trust the trading platform you intend on using. This is especially the case if you intend on using a scalping strategy, for example. However, if you like to trade, it is vital for your peace of mind and your finances that you are fully confident with the fast execution of data transfer.
This is also the case with the precision of quoted prices, and the speed of order processing. All of these things are going to help you to have a successful forex trading experience. To enable you to make the most of new opportunities, the ideal forex broker will be available to you 24 hours a day and 7 days a week, in line with the forex market opening hours. To save you from having to request that your broker takes action for you, your forex broker should enable you to manage your account and your trades separately.
By doing this, you will be in a much better position to quickly react to any shifts in the market, and hopefully, make the most of potential opportunities. This will enable you to gain better control over any open positions as and when they arise. It is important to ensure that your forex broker of choice is a reputable company, who will ensure that your personal information and trading funds are fully protected and backed up. Segregation is frequently used amongst forex brokers as a way to separate your funds from the funds of the company i.
their daily costs, debts and running costs. So, no matter what happens to the forex broker, your money is safe and segregated. If you find that a forex broker is unable to do this, we would suggest you find a better broker as it is standard practice these days.
All of the brokers listed towards the end of this forex trading PDF are regulated by at least one reputable licensing body. In terms of getting set up as an online forex trader, the steps remain constant regardless of which broker you decide to join. Below we list some of the steps that you will need to take. In order to open an account, you will need to enter some personal information.
Standard details requested by the broker will be things like your name, residential address, and contact details. Some brokers will also require your tax status and will ask you to provide more financial details such as employment status, net worth and any regular income. In this instance, you will usually need to answer some multiple-choice questions based on your experience.
This is usually a fairly simple process. Known as KYC in the industry Know Your Customer , this simply means that the forex broker is going to need you to prove who you are. Some brokers will verify this using scanned copies of documentation.
Now you need to select your payment method of choice usually from a drop-down list. Bear in mind that how long this takes to go into your trading account will largely depend on the payment method — so always check this before parting with your cash. Some brokers even support e-wallets like PayPal and Skrill.
After reading our forex trading PDF you should now be feeling confident enough to begin trading. However, we do recommend that you always try out a free forex trading demo first. This will allow you to test out your newly formed trading strategies before risking your own capital.
In the next section of our forex trading PDF, we explore some of the more important technical indicators and market insights used by seasoned traders. First invented by Richard Donchian, the donchian channels can be adapted as you like, in terms of parameters. Should you choose to view a day breakdown, for example, the indicator will be created by taking the lowest low, and the highest high of that period so in this example 30 periods.
When observing the moving average on a donchian channel you can look at averages stretching from 25 days to the last days. The direction which is permitted is determined by the direction of the short-term moving average.
With this in mind, you should think about opening one of the following two positions:.
edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. To browse Academia. edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. eliza salihu. Abstract Forexhero. Continue Reading Download Free PDF. You will not find long third upgraded edition. We received a lot of great watery essay type paragraphs here, just feedback about the first and second e-book actionable and easy-to-digest information.
thank you! For this new edition we have rewritten This e-book will help you learn Forex trading everything from the ground up. We are pretty skills in the fastest time possible! We made this ebook as the you have. Our program has shown interesting ultimate learning resource for ourselves and results: people with no previous financial hope you enjoy it too!
market experience often delivered better performance than those with the experience! If someone teaches you something and it this fact is confirmed as well. sounds really complex, they probably haven't taken the time to think through how to boil it down.
Be careful with folks like that. There's a diﬀerence between being good at something and being good at teaching it. The currency pair price changes will generate your profits. It is better to invest in the currency of a country that is growing faster and fund it with a currency of a country that is growing slower. When does it work The market is open 24 hours, 5. Read on to uncover deeper secrets about forex timing.
Spread point The diﬀerence between the sell quote and the buy quote in pips. The smaller the spread, the more liquid the currency! Section 01 Introduction and key concepts 5 advantages of forex Make money even in times of crisis While the stock market and commercial bank deposits are in deep depression during the crisis, Forex profits, because any change in currency can be used to make profit.
A falling market is as profitable for Forex trading as a developing one because unlike in stock trading you can short the falling assets. Work while lying in a hammock All you need to start making money is a computer or a smart phone and an Internet connection. Your work space and goals are up to you! Easy rules Unlike the stock market with tens of thousands of diﬀerent shares, Forex works with 8 basic currencies, which are the center of most trades.
Moreover, there are significantly less factors that influence currency exchange rates than in the stock market. Section 01 Introduction and key concepts 3 main disadvantages of forex Most of other forex learning materials will tell you that forex offers an easy way to make money.
High risk to lose the whole position In stock trading, unlike forex, it is very unlikely that you will lose all the money when investing in the stock market. But the truth is, you struggle with finding enought time to do it all. Emmanuel Follow Follow their activities. This is also a good way to learn Forex strategies in a real-life trading environment. I believe the investors. This was a great opportunity to make money shorting betting that it would decline the euro.
This is useful because the larger trade. Leverage is shown as a ratio, for movement in currency rates can be very small, example profits and losses alike.
Leverage allows you to trade with more money Stock market Forex market Maximum leverage from to Varying lot sizes Term Lot In Forex, all transactions can be conducted via standard, mini, and micro lots.
Each lot size accounts for a diﬀerent measure of units of the base currency, which in turn presents a diﬀerent pip value. Below is a simple chart to illustrate the diﬀerences in lot sizes, measured in units, volume for the major pairs where the base currency is USD. Those traders who are looking to get started in the forex market should consider opening a mini account because of the smaller contract sizes. Term Spread The diﬀerence between the bid price and the ask price is called a spread.
Although these movements may seem insignificant, even the smallest point change can result in thousands of dollars being made or lost due to leverage. Again, this is one of the reasons that speculators are so attracted to the forex market; even the tiniest price movement can result in huge profit.
While the high degree of leverage used in forex trading magnifies returns and risks, a few safety precautions used by professional traders may help mitigate these risks. Do you need more than strategy and only those with high risk , US dollars to open the trade? With tolerance should consider using big leverage. If you are a relatively cautious Leverage investor or trader, use a lower level of leverage with perhaps or leverage.
Maximum leverage limits vary in diﬀerent This is the amount that will be used to cover your potential losses. In other words, the countries, varying from to margin is the actual amount that you are Use Stop Loss orders! Stops can be used not risking to lose if the trade goes against you.
just to ensure that losses are capped, but also to protect profits. Section 01 Introduction and key concepts Example: leverage in use Going short on euro Europe has been hit by a crisis, so you expect the euro to fall against the US dollar. nov 1. dec Case B: Leverage Case B: Leverage 1. You open a position of 1 lot, which 1. You were right.
Euro depreciates against 2. Euro depreciates against the dollar to 1. close your trade and take your profits. Result: The euro fell by pips 1. Your profit is x 1 - 1. Section 01 Introduction and key concepts How much should I invest?
Traders should look to use an eﬀective leverage of to1 or less. Research shows that the amount of capital in your trading account can aﬀect your profitability. With smaller investment you will not get enough profits as the average changes in the currency rates are small.
If you haven't heard of these terms already, you undoubtedly will as you begin to invest. The terms bull market and bear market describe upward and downward market trends, respectively, and can be used to describe either the market as a whole or specific sectors and securities. These images will help you memorize which is which. Doji - when the opening and closing price are equal. Long-Legged Doji - after small candlesticks, they indicate a potential trend change.
Normally only seen on thinly traded pairs. Your Capital may be at risk. That is, on the most fundamental level, a currency rallies because there is a demand for that currency. Regardless of whether the demand is for hedging, speculative, or conversion purposes, true movements are based on the need for the currency.
Currency values decrease when there is excess supply. Supply and demand should be the real determinants for predicting future movements. However, how to predict supply and demand is not as simple as many would think. Two of the primary factors aﬀecting supply and demand of currencies are interest rates and the overall strength of the economy. There are many factors that contribute to the net supply and demand for a currency and the strength of the economy.
Read on to uncover the main drivers that influence the exchange rates. The number of economic announcements made each day from around the world can be intimidating, so we will focus just on the most important ones.
How are they divided The drivers are divided into three major groups: Geo-political, Economic and Market Psychology. Here they are: Kathy Lien Chief Currency Strategist at Forex Capital Markets LLC.
Former Currency trader at JPMorgan Chase. TOP 9 Unemployment NFP or Non Farm 1 Payroll 6 Retail sales Will US employment continue to grow? For example, if the U. trade the U. more dollars flow out of the U.
Download PDF - blogger.com [6nq9g15ee2lw]. This is a non-profit website to share the knowledge. To maintain this website, we need your help The purpose of this ebook is to introduce the forex market to you. As with many markets there are many derivative of the central market such as futures, options and forwards. In this book 3/3/ · Download An Introduction to Forex Trading PDF Book by Matthew Driver for free using the direct download link from pdf reader View INTRODUCTION TO FOREX blogger.com from FINC MISC at Kirinyaga University College (JKUAT). INTRODUCTION TO FOREX TRADING SYLLABUS Part 1: Introduction ... read more
gyrations in the price of currency on a day when there are no news or economic Technical analysts can also follow many reports. sounds really complex, they probably haven't taken the time to think through how to boil it down. Need an account? These images will help you memorize which is which. Margin The margin is the amount of money needed to open or maintain a position. They will instruct the brokerage to always rollover their position. There were also instances were the broker became insolvent and many complications ensued as to what was the clients money and what was the broker's money.The supply and demand aspect is thanks to the introduction to forex trading pdf download of importers, exporters, banks and traders — to name a few. Small Account Minimums the forex market is much easier to participate in than other markets be- cause of the minimal requirements to open a Forex trading account. nonfarm payrolls. By Ashraf Laïdi. The total value of the currency pair needs to surpass the spread in order for the forex trade to become profitable. Most individual traders will start trading with technical analysis because for some it is But trading on fundamentals alone can also easier to understand and does not require be risky, introduction to forex trading pdf download.